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Patricia Rose Bergquist

(1933–2009)

DBE MSc (Hons) PhD DSc FRSNZ

 

Dame Patricia Bergquist FRSNZ

Dame Patricia Bergquist FRSNZ

 

Dame Professor Pat Bergquist was born Patricia Rose Smyth on Auckland’s North Shore on 10 March 1933. Her mother, Bertha, was the homemaker and her father William was an electrician. Pat had a younger brother Norman and a sister Catherine who idolised her from their earliest days and this became even stronger after their mother’s early death leaving Pat the senior woman in the household. It was at this point that their father found support for the household through the Salvation Army. (Pat played the tenor horn in the band and her ‘ties of gratitude’ remained with her all her life). First attending Devonport Primary School, Pat went on to be Dux of Takapuna Grammar School before attending the University of Auckland in 1950. Here she completed her MSc with First Class Honours on the biology of a fern species and a second MSc equivalent in Zoology before going on to obtain her PhD on the taxonomy of the Porifera in 1961. Hers was the first doctoral degree awarded in Zoology at the University of Auckland. In 1958 she married Peter Bergquist and together, following her Doctorate, they studied at Yale University (Pat) and Harvard University (Peter) from 1961 to 1964, where she consolidated her skill and expertise and established herself as an outstanding taxonomist. Pat returned for a further period with Willard Hartman at Yale in 1968-69.

Pat’s particular interest in marine sponges led to a benchmark series of publications, commencing with an overview of the behaviour of intertidal sponges published in the New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research in 1967 and continuing with a series of definitive publications on the Demospongiae in the NZ Oceanographic Institute’s memoir series on the Marine Fauna of New Zealand. Her text book “Sponges” published in 1978 remains the only definitive text book in this area and is a prescribed text throughout the world. Pat recognised the need for a stable framework of higher level classification that permitted the recognition of generic relationships and facilitated the description of new species; she played a significant role in establishing this for marine sponges. Pat was one of the first to use chemical attributes for systematic comparisons and classification and was a pioneer in the area of bioactives, being one of the first to recognise the importance and potential of compounds extracted from sponges for the biopharma industry. For more than 30 years she collaborated with the Roche Research Institute for Marine Pharmacology, bringing her combined knowledge of sponge taxonomy worldwide, her knowledge of marine natural product chemistry and of sponge histology and developmental biology to this very successful partnership. Pat was instrumental in setting up the monitoring survey programme for Maui Exploration before the establishment of the Maui oil fields off the New Plymouth coast. Her combined interests in marine biology saw her working across the world including the Mediterranean, New Caledonia, Antarctica, North America, Australia (especially the Barrier Reef) and many offshore islands around New Zealand in addition to our own coastline. She published over 130 peer-reviewed Journal articles.

Pat was an innovative educator and had expertise across a broad range of anatomical, developmental and zoological fields and was an excellent cell biologist. She supervised many postgraduate students in the Department of Zoology at the University of Auckland who remember her fondly as PRB. Research projects covered all fields of biology and she demanded of her students the same high academic standards she set herself. Her success as a supervisor is reflected in the appointment of many of her students to senior positions in universities at home and around the world, in museums, the marine industry and business sector and crown research institutes such as NIWA and the Australian Institute of Marine Science. Many have benefited enormously from her guidance and advice and from her very real support in career development.

Pat was one of Auckland University's first two female Professors and the second woman to receive a Personal Chair in 1981, awarded in Zoology for her contributions to marine sciences. She played key roles in many areas of the university management. Pat was for a long time Assistant Vice-Chancellor (Academic) and served one term as Deputy Vice Chancellor, as well as serving on every vice-chancellor’s committee within the University. At various times she held positions on the University Council, Research Committee, and Finance Committee. As a member of the Appointments Committee and Promotions Advisory Committee she played a critical role in making appointments (including Chairs) across the whole of the University.

Pat remained with the University of Auckland for a remarkable 47-year period. After retiring in 1999, she relocated to the Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences as Emeritus Professor of Zoology and Honorary Professor of Anatomy with Radiology at the University of Auckland where she worked until the time of her death.

Pat was recognised as a world authority on the taxonomy of sponges and was awarded a DSc in 1980 in recognition of her research in sponge biology and biochemistry. She was elected to a Fellowship of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1982 and was awarded the Hector Medal and Prize of the Royal Society of New Zealand for distinguished contributions to research in 1989 and the New Zealand Marine Sciences Society Prize for distinguished contributions to Marine Biology in 1990. She was also involved in the Hauraki Gulf Maritime Parks Board and was a founding Member of the Board of the Foundation for Research, Science and Technology. She served on the Prime Minister’s Special Committee on Nuclear Propulsion in 1992-23. In 1994 she was on the review panel set up to examine the quality and quantity of research at Te Papa, and their report, An Agenda for Scholarship, went a long way towards meeting the challenges of the future for scholarship and research at Te Papa. In 1993 she was made a Dame Commander of the Order of the British Empire for her contributions to science, both in New Zealand and internationally.

Pat loved her beach house at Coromandel and valued and appreciated family time spent there within the Wyuna Bay community where fishing was a favourite pastime. Her much loved dog also enjoyed the beach where walks and fishing trips aroused much excitement. Together with her husband Peter and daughter Claire, Pat travelled the world, attended the opera and the ballet in both Sydney and Auckland and appreciated very much the high level of performance and talent in the arts both abroad and here in New Zealand and Australia. Many of Pat’s students were introduced to the ballet, opera and good wine and food during the course of their studies. Pat always included her students in her own cultural outings as if this was a natural part of the “training”. She was an accomplished sportswoman and played cricket for Auckland as well as taking up windsurfing in her later years.

Pat was a very strong, intelligent and determined person within New Zealand academia. She had a very dry and quick sense of humour and was always happy to participate in debate and conversation at all levels. But perhaps her greatest tribute is the legacy she leaves to the international marine biology community. Pat will be remembered by her colleagues, past students and friends as an outstanding scientist, and a loyal friend and colleague who contributed so much to her field and to life at the University of Auckland. Pat died on Wednesday, 9 September 2009, after a courageous and long-term battle with breast cancer. Tributes to Pat sent to Peter and Claire, from colleagues and past students, came from all corners of the world. But the greatest tribute is perhaps captured in the words of a PhD student at Dalhousie University, Canada, as this acknowledges Pat’s lifelong love of her work, her commitment and dedication to her chosen field and her contribution to the next generation –

I have never met you, but your book was instrumental in fostering my fascination with sponges as an undergraduate, and my subsequent PhD work and advocacy to protect deep-water sponges”.

 

Professor Louise FB Nicholson
Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences
University of Auckland, New Zealand

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alvarez, B.; Bergquist, P. R.; Battershill, C. N. 2002: Taxonomic revision of the genus Latrunculia Du Bocage (Porifera: Demospongiae: Latrunculiidae) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 36 (1): 151−184.

Battershill, C. N.; Bergquist, P. R. 1982: Responses of an intertidal gastropod to field exposure of an oil and a dispersant. Marine Pollution Bulletin 13 (5): 159−162.

Battershill, C. N.; Bergquist, P. R. 1984: The influence of biorhythms on sensitivity of Nerita to pollutants at sublethal levels. Oil and Petrochemical Pollution 2 (1): 31−38.

Bell, A. H.; Bergquist, P. R.; Battershill, C. N. 1999: Feeding biology of Polymastia croceus. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 44 (12): 51−56.

Bergquist, P. R. 1961a: A collection of Porifera from northern New Zealand, with descriptions of seventeen new species. Pacific Science XV (1): 33−48.

Bergquist, P. R. 1961b: The Keratosa (Porifera) collected by the Chatham Islands 1954 Expedition. N. Z. D. S. I. R. Bulletin 139, Biological results of the Chatham Islands 1094 Expedition 5; 207−219.

Bergquist, P. R. 1961c: Demospongiae (Porifera) of the Chatham Islands and Chatham Rise, collected by the Chatham Island 1954 Expeditions. N. Z. D. S. I. R. Bulletin 139, Biological results of the Chatham Islands 1094 Expedition 5: 169−206.

Bergquist, P. R. 1962. An annotated bibliography of the Sponges of New Zealand. University of Auckland Bibliographical pamphlet 5: 1−8.

Bergquist, P. R. 1965: The sponges of Micronesia, Part 1, The Palau Archipelago. Pacific Science XlX (2): 123−204.

Bergquist, P. R. 1967: Additions to the Sponge Fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. Micronesica 3: 159−174.

Bergquist, P. R. 1968: The marine fauna of New Zealand: Porifera, Demospongiae. Part 1. (Tetractinomorpha and Lithistida). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir 37: 105.

Bergquist, P. R. 1969: Shallow water Demospongiae from Heron Island. University of Queensland Papers. Heron Island Research Station 1 (4): 63−72.

Bergquist, P. R. 1970: The marine fauna of New Zealand: Porifera, Demospongiae. Part 2. Axinellida and Halichondrida. New Zealand. Oceanographic Memoir 51: 1−85.

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Bergquist, P. R. 1972b: Phytlum Porifera, Section 3. Pp. 76−103 in: Marshall, A. J. & Williams, W. D., Textbook of Zoology, Invertebraters. MacMillan.

Bergquist, P. R. 1978: Sponges. Hutchinson and Co. London, UK.

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Bergquist, P. R. 1980b: Sponge Chemistry−a review. Pp. 383−392 in: Colloques Internationaux du CNRS No. 291. Biologie des Spongiaires.

Bergquist, P. R. 1980c: A revision of the supraspecification classification of the orders Dictyoceratida, Dendroceratida, and Verongida (class Demospongiae). New Zealand Journal of Zoology 7: 443−503.

Bergquist, P. R. 1983: Porifera, in The New Zealand Biota – What do we know after 200 years? ed. Baker, A. N.; Brownsey, P. J. National Museum of NZ Miscellaneous Series 7: 54−59.

Bergquist, P. R. 1985: Poriferan relationships. Pp.14−28 in: Ch. 2, Origins and Relationships of the Lower Metazoa, ed. Conway-Morris, S., Gibson, R.; George, J. D. Oxford University Press.

Bergquist, P. R. 1986: Developmental potential of epithelial cells of ceractinomorph sponge larvae. Tissue & Cell 18 (1): 19−25.

Bergquist, P. R. 1993a: Research directions and priorities in marine toxins and N. Z. shellfish. Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand Miscellaneous Series 24: 53−55.

Bergquist, P. R. 1993b. Partnership: with sponges and others. Pp. 59−62 in: Celebrating women in science, ed. Cresswell, N. Proceedings of Women’s Suffrage Centennial Science Conference.

Bergquist, P. R. 1994: Onwards and Upwards with sponges. Pp. xiii−xviii in: Van Soest, R. W. M.; van Kempen, T. M. G.; Braekman, J. C. eds, Sponges in time and space. Biology, Chemistry, Palaeontology. Proceedings of the 4th International Porifera Conference. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield.

Bergquist, P. R. 1995: Dictyoceratida, Dendroceratida, and Verongida from the New Caledonian Lagoon (Porifera: Demospongiae). Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 38 (1): 1−51.

Bergquist, P. R. 1996: Porifera: Demospongiae. Part 5: Dendroceratida and Halisarcida. New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir 107: 7−53.

Bergquist, P. R. 1998: The Porifera. Pp. 10-27 in: Ch. 2, Invertebrate Zoology, Anderson, D. T. ed. Oxford University Press.

Bergquist, P. R. 1999: The present state of sponge science. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 44: 23−26.

Bergquist, P. R.; Ayling, A. M.; Wilkinson, C. R. 1988: Foliose Dictyoceratida of the Australian Great Barrier Reef. 1. Taxonomy, phylogenetic relationships. PSZNI Marine Ecology 9: 291−319.

Bergquist, P. R.; Battershill C. N. 1990: The influence of storms on asexual reproduction, recruitment and survivorship of sponges. Pp. 397−403 in: New Perspectives in Sponge Biology, ed. Rutzler, K. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Bergquist, P. R.; Bedford, J. J. 1978: The incidence of antibacterial activity in marine demospongiae; systematic and geographic considerations. Marine Biology 46 (3): 215−221.

Bergquist, P. R.; Bowden, P. F.; Cambie, R. C.; Crawe, P. A.; Karuso, P.; Poiner, A.; Taylor, W. C. 1993: The constituents of marine sponges. Diterpenoid metabolites of the New Zealand sponge Chelonaplysilla violacea. Australian Journal of Chemistry 46: 623−634.

Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Kernan, M. R. 1990: Scalarane sesterterpenes from Collospongia auris, a new thorectid sponge. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 18 (5): 349−357.

Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Kernan, M. R. 1991: Aaptamine, a taxonomic marker for sponges of the order hadromerida. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 19 (4): 289−290.

Bergquist, P. R.; Fromont, P. J. 1988: The marine fauna of New Zealand: Porifera, Demospongiae, Part 4 (Poecilosclerida). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir 96: 1−197.

Bergquist, P. R.; Fromont, J. P. 1990: Structural characters and their use in sponge taxonomy. Pp. 273−278 in: New Perspectives in Sponge Biology, ed. Rutzler, K. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Bergquist, P. R.; Glasgow, K. 1986: Developmental potential of ciliated cells of ceractinomorph sponge larvae. Experimental Biology 45 (2): 111−122.

Bergquist, P. R.; Green, C. R. 1977a: A method for preserving larva substrate relationships during preparation for electron microscopy. Biology of the Cell 328 (1): 85−86.

Bergquist, P. R.; Green, C. R. 1977b: An ultrastructural study of settlement and metamorphosis in sponge larvae. Cahiers de Biologie Marine XVIII: 289−302.

Bergquist, P. R.; Green, C. R.; Sinclair, M. E.; Roberts, H. S. 1977: The morphology of cilia in sponge larvae. Tissue and Cell 9 (1): 179−184.

Bergquist, P. R.; Hartman W. D. 1969: Free amino acid patterns and the classification of the Demospongiae. Marine Biology 3 (3): 247−268.

Bergquist, P. R.; Hofheinz, W.; Oesterhelt, G. 1980: Sterol composition and the classification of the demospongiae. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 8 (4): 423−435.

Bergquist, P. R.; Hogg, J. J. 1969: Free amino acid patterns in Demospongiae, a biochemical approach to sponge classification. Cahier de Biologie Marine X: 205−220.

Bergquist, P. R.; Karuso, P.; Cambie, R. C.1990: Taxonomic relationships within the Dendroceratida; a biological and chemotaxonomic appraisal. Pp. 72−78 in: New Perspectives in Sponge Biology, ed. Rutzler, K. Smithsonian Institution.

Bergquist, P. R.; Karuso, P.; Cambie, R. C.; Smith, D. J. 1991: Sterol composition and classification of the porifera. 3. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 19 (1): 17−24.

Bergquist, P. R., Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. L. 1989: Ribosomal RNA sequences and sponge phylogeny. Journal of Cellular Biochemistry Suppl. 13C: 98.

Bergquist, P. R.; Kelly-Borges, M. 1991: An evaluation of the genus Tethya (Porifera: Hadromerida) with descriptions of new species from the South West Pacific. The Beagle. Records of the Northern Territory Museum of Arts and Sciences 8 (1): 37−72.

Bergquist, P. R.; Kelly, M. 2004: Taxonomy of some halisarcida and homosclerophorida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the Indo-Pacific. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 38 (1): 51−66.

Bergquist, P. R.; Kelly-Borges, M. 1994: Systematics and biogeography of the genus Ianthella (Demospongiae; Verongida; Ianthellidae). Beagle 12: 151−176.

Bergquist, P. R.; Lavis, A.; Cambie, R. C. 1986: Sterol composition and classification of Demospongiae. 2. Sterol composition and classification of the porifera. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 14 (1): 105−112.

Bergquist, P. R.; Lawson, M. P.; Lavis, A.; Cambie, R. C. 1984: Fatty acid composition and the classification of the porifera. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 12 (1): 63−84.

Bergquist, P. R.; Morton, J. E.; Tizard, C. A. 1970: Some Demospongiae from the Solomon Islands with descriptive notes on the major sponge habitats. Micronesica 7: 99−121.

Bergquist, P. R.; Silyn-Roberts, H. 1977: Speculation of a primitive marine sponge. Naturwissenschaftliche Rundschau E5114: i−iii.

Bergquist, P. R.; Sinclair, M. E. 1968: The morphology and behaviour of larvae of some intertidal sponges. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 2: 426−437.

Bergquist, P. R.; Sinclair, M. E. 1973: Seasonal variation in settlement and spiculation of sponge larvae. Marine Biology 20 (1): 35−44.

Bergquist, P. R., Sinclair, M. E., Green, C. R.; Silyn-Roberts, H. 1980: Comparative morphology and behaviour of sponge larvae. Pp. 103−117 in: Colloques Internationaux du CNRS No. 291. Biologie des Spongiaires.

Bergquist, P. R.; Sinclair, M. E.; Hogg, J. J. 1970: Adaptation to intertidal existence: reproductive cycles and larval behaviour in Demospongiae. Symposium of the Zoological Society of London 25: 247−271.

Bergquist, P. R.; Skinner, I. G. 1981: Sponges. Pp. 38−72 in: The Marine Fauna of South Australia, ed. Thomas, R.; Shepherd, S.

Bergquist, P. R.; Sorokin, S.; Karuso, P. 1999: Pushing the boundaries: a new genus and species of Dictyoceratida. Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 44: 57−62.

Bergquist, P. R.; Tizard C. A. 1967: Australian intertidal Sponges from the Darwin area. Micronesica 3: 175−202.

Bergquist, P. R.; Tizard, C. A. 1969: Sponges. Pp. 665−670 in: Firth, F. E. Encyclopedia of Marine Resources. Van Nostrand, N. Y.

Bergquist P. R.; Walsh D.; Gray R. D. 1998: Relationships within and between the orders of Demospongiae that lack a mineral skeleton. Pp. 31−40 in: Watanabe Y.; Fusetani N. (eds), Sponge Sciences. Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Springer-Verlag, Tokyo.

Bergquist, P. R.; Warne, K. P. 1980: The marine fauna of New Zealand: Porifera, Demospongiae. Part 3. (Haplosclerida and Nepheliospongida). New Zealand Oceanographic Institute Memoir 87: 1−77.

Bergquist, P. R.; Wells, R. 1983: Chemotaxonomy of the Porifera: The development and current status of the field. Scheuer, P. ed. Chemical and Biological Perspectives 5: 1−50, Academic Press, New York.

Bergquist, P. R.; Wilkinson, C. W.; Ayling, A. 1989: Foliose Dictyoceratida of the Australian Great barrier reef.I. Taxonomy and phylogeny. Marine Ecology 9 (4): 291−319.

Bowden, B.; Coll, J. C.; Li, H.; Cambie, R. C.; Kernan, M. R.; Bergquist, P. R. 1992: New cytotoxic scalarane sesterterpenes from the Dictyoceratid sponge Strepsichordaia lendenfeldi. Journal of Natural Products 55 (9): 1234−1240.

Buckleton, J. S.; Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Clark, G. R.; Rickard, C. E. F. 1986: Structure determination of Aplyviolene from Chelonaplysilla violacea. Acta Crystallographica Section C, 42(12): 1846−1848.

Cambie, R. C.; Bergquist, P. R.; Karuso, P. 1988: Chemistry of sponges, V. Dictyodendrillolide, a new prenylated butenolide from a sponge. Journal of Natural Products 51 (5): 1014−1016.

Cambie, R. C.; Craw, P. A.; Bergquist, P. R.; Karuso, P. 1987: Chemistry of sponges, II. Pallescensone, a furanosesquiterpenoid from Dictyodendrilla cavernosa.Journal of Natural Products 50 (5): 948−949.

Cambie, R. C.; Craw, P. A.; Bergquist, P. R.; Karuso, P. 1988: Chemistry of sponges, III. Manoalide monoacetate and thorectolide monoacetate, two new sesterterpenoids from Thorectandra excavates. Journal of Natural Products 51 (2): 331−334.

Cambie, R. C.; Craw, P. A.; Stone, M. J.; Bergquist, P. R. 1988: Chemistry of sponges, IV. Spongian diterpenes from Hyatella intestinali. Journal of Natural Products 51 (2): 293−297.

Cambie, R. C.; Lal, A. R.; Kernan, M. R.; Bergquist, P. R. 1995: Chemistry of sponges, 17. A novel brominated benzocyclooctane derivative from Hamigera taragensis. Journal of Natural Products 58 (6): 940−942.

Cambie, R. C.; Rutledge, P. S.; Yang, X. S.; Bergquist, P. R. 1998: Chemistry of sponges. 18.1 12-desacetylfuroscalar-16-one, a new sesterterpene from a Cacospongia sp. Journal of Natural Products 61 (11): 1416−1417.

Cook, S. de C; Bergquist, P. R. 1996: New species of dictyoceratid sponges (Porifera: Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 30 (1): 19−34.

Cook, S. de C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1998: Revision of the genus Psammocinia (Porifera: Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida), with six new species from New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 32 (3): 399−426.

Cook, S. de C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1999: New species of dictyoceratid sponges from New Zealand: Genus Ircinia (Porifera: Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida). New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 33 (4): 545−563.

Cook, S. de C.; Bergquist, P. R. 2001: New species of Spongia (Porifera: Demospongiae: Dictyoceratida) from New Zealand, and a proposed subgeneric structure. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 35 (1): 33−58.

Dopeso, J.; Quinoa, E.; Riguera, R.; Debitus, Cécile; Bergquist, P. R. 1994: Euryspongiols: ten new highly hydroxylated 9,11-secosteroids with antihistaminic activity from the sponge Euryspongia sp. stereochemistry and reduction. Tetrahedron 50 (12): 3813−3828.

Duckworth, M. A. R.; Battershill, C. N.; Schiel, D. R.; Bergquist, P. R. 1999: Farming sponges for the production of bioactive.Memoirs of the Queensland Museum 44: 155−159.

Duckworth, A. R.; Battershill, C. N.; Bergquist, P. R. 1997: Influence of explant procedures and environmental factors on culture success of three sponges. Aquaculture 156 (34): 251−267.

Evans, C. W.; Bergquist, P. R. 1974: Initial cell contact in sponge aggregates. Journal of Microscopy 21 (2): 185−188.

Evans, C. W.; Bergquist, P. R. 1977: A re-evaluation of the relevance of acid mucopolysaccharides in sponge taxonomy. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 28: 191−199.

Fromont, J.; Bergquist, P.R. 1994: Reproductive biology of 3 sponge species of the genus Xestospongia (Porifera, Demospongiae, Petrosida) from the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 13 (2): 119−126.

Garson, M. J.; Larsen, R.; Thompson, J. E.; Bergquist, P. R. 1989: Terpenes as structural components in sponge cell membranes: Experimental evidence from cell separation and membrane fractionation studies with the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon sp. Australian Marine Sciences Bicentenary: 149−153.

Garson, M. J.; Thompson, J. E.; Larsen, R. M.; Battershill, C. N.; Murphy, P. T.; Bergquist, P. R. 1992: Terpenes in sponge cell membranes: Cell separation and membrane fractionation studies with the tropical marine sponge Amphimedon sp. Lipids 27 (5): 378−388.

Green, C. R.; Bergquist, P. R. 1980: Cell membrane specializations in the Porifera. Pp. 153−157 in: Colloques Internationaux du CNRS No. 291. Biologie des Spongiaires.

Green, C. R.; Bergquist, P. R. 1982: Phylogenetic relationships within the invertebrata in relation to the structure of septate junctions and the development of occluding junctional types. Journal of Cell Science 53: 279–305.

Green, C. R.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bullivant, S. 1979: An anastomosing septate junction in endothelial cells of the phylum echinodermata. Journal of Ultrastructure Research 68 (1): 72−80.

Green, L. F.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bullivant, S. 1980: The structure and function of the smooth septate junction in a transporting epithelium: the Malpighian tubules of the New Zealand glow-worm Arachnocampa luminosa. Tissue and Cell 12 (2): 365−381.

Gregson, R. P.; Baldo, B. A.; Thomas, P. G.; Quinn, R. J.; Bergquist, P. R.; Stephens, J. F.; Horne, A. R. 1979: Fluorine is a major constituent of the marine sponge Halichondria moorei. Science 30 206 (4422): 1108−1109.

Handley, S. J.; Bergquist, P. R. 1997: Spionid polychaete infestations of intertidal Pacific oysters Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg), Mahurangi Harbour, northern New Zealand. Aquaculture 153 (34): 191−205.

Haywood, A. J.; Steidinger, K. A.; Truby, E. W.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bergquist, P. L.; Adamson, J.; MacKenzie, L. 2004: Comparative morphology and molecular phylogenetic analysis of three new species of the genus Karenia (Dinophyceae) from New Zealand. Journal of Phycology 40 (1): 165−179.

Hertzberg, S.; Bergquist, P.; Liaaen-Jensen, S. 1989: Further occurrence of sulphated carotenoids in lanthella species (Desmospongia). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 17 (1): 51−53.

Hertzberg, S.; Englert, G.; Bergquist, P; Liaaen-Jensen, S. 1986: Carotenoids of the sponge Polymastia granulosa (Hadromerida). Bulletin des Sociétés Chimiques Belges 95: 801−814.

Hooper, J. N. A.; Bergquist, P. R. 1992: Cymbastela, a new genus of lamellate coral reef sponges. Memoirs Queensland Museum 32 (1): 99−137.

Karuso, P.; Bergquist, P. R.; Buckleton, J. S.; Cambie, R. C.; Clark, G. R.; Rickard, C. E. F. 1986: 132,173-Cyclopheophorbide enol, the first porphyrin isolated from a sponge. Tetrahedron Letters 27 (19): 2177−2178.

Karuso, P.; Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Buckleton, J. S.; Clark, G. R.; Rickard, J. E. S. 1986: Terpenoid constituents of morphologically similar sponges in the family Aplysillidae. Australian Journal of Chemistry 39: 1643−1653.

Karuso, P.; Bowden, B.F.; Bergquist, P.R. 1989: Chemistry of sponges, VI. Scalarane sesterterpenes from Hyatella intestinalis. Journal of Natural Products 52 (2): 289-293.

Karuso, P.; Cambie, R. C.; Bowden, B. F.; Bergquist, P. R. 1989: Chemistry of sponges VI. Scalarenesesterterpenes from Hyatella intestinalis. Journal of Natural Products 52 (2): 289−293.

Karuso, P.; Hagadone, M. R.; Schuer, P. J.; Bergquist, P. R. 1990: Chemotaxonomy of the Porifera by infrared spectroscopy. Pp. 55−60 in: New Perspectives in Sponge Biology, ed. Rutzler, K. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. R. 1989a: Sponges from Motupore Island, Papua New Guinea. Indomalayan Zoology 5 (2): 121−160.

Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. R. 1989b: Success in a shallow reef environment: sponge recruitment by fragmentation through predation. Proceedings of the 6th International Coral Reef Symposium: 757−762.

Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. R. 1994: A redescription of Aptos aptos (Schmidt) with descriptions of new species of Aptos Gray (Hadromerida, Suberitidae) from northern New Zealand. Journal of Zoology 234: 301−323.

Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bergquist, P. L. 1991: Phylogenetic relationships within the order Hadromerida (Porifera, Demospongiae, Tetractinomorpha) as indicated by ribosomal RNA sequence comparisons. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 19 (2): 117−125.

Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. R. 1997: Revision of Southwest Pacific Polymastiidae (Porifera: Demospongiae: Hadromerida) with descriptions of new species of Polymastia Bowerbank, Tylexocladus Topsent, and Acanthopolymastia gen. nov. from New Zealand and the Norfolk Ridge, New Caledonia. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31 (3): 367−402.

Kernan, M. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1990a: Chemistry of sponges, VII. 11, 19-Dideoxyfistularin 3 and 11-hydroxyaerothionin, bromotyrosine derivatives from Pseudoceratina durissima. Journal of Natural Products 53 (3): 615−622.

Kernan, M. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1990b: Chemistry of sponges, VIII. Anomoian A, a bromotyrosine derivative from Anomoianthella popeae. Journal of Natural Products 53 (3): 720−723.

Kernan, M. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1990c: Chemistry of sponges, IX. New diterpenes from the marine sponge Dictyodendrilla cavernosa. Journal of Natural Products 53 (3): 724−727.

Kernan, M. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1990d: Chemistry of sponges, X. New sesquiterpenes from a marine sponge of the genus Eurypon. Journal of Natural Products 53 (5): 1353−1356.

Kernan, M. R.; Cambie; R. C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1991a: Chemistry of sponges, XI. 22-Deoxyvariabilin, a new sesterterpene from the sponge Thorecta sp. Journal of Natural Products 54 (1): 265−268.

Kernan, M. R.; Cambie; R. C.; Bergquist, P. R. 1991b: Chemistry of sponges, XII. A new dihydric phenol from the sponge Fasciospongia sp. Journal of Natural Products 54 (1): 269−270.

Lal, A. R.; Cambie, R. C.; Rickard, C. E. F.; Bergquist, P. R. 1994: Sesterpene lactones from a sponge species of the genus Dactylospongia. Tetrahedron Letters 35 (16): 2603−2606.

Lawson, M. P.; Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C.1984: Fatty-acid composition and the classification of the porifera. 2. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 12 (4): 375−393.

Lawson, M. P.; Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C. 1986: The cellular localization of long chain fatty acids in sponges. Tissue and Cell 18 (1): 19−26.

Lawson, M. P.; Bergquist, P. R.; Cambie, R. C. 1990: Long chain fatty acids in sponge membranes. Pp. 51-54 in: New Perspectives in Sponge Biology, ed. Rutzler, K. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D. C.

Liaaen-Jensen, S.; Renstrøm, B.; Ramdahl, T.; Hallenstvet, M.; Bergquist, P. 1982: Carotenoids of Marine Sponges. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 10 (2): 167−174.

Paul, V. J.; Seo, Y.; Cho, K. W.; Rho, J. R.; Shin, J.; Bergquist, P. R. 1997: Sesquiterpenoids of the drimane class from a sponge of the genus Dysidea. Journal of Natural Products 60 (11): 1115−1120.

Perry, N. B.; Battershill, C. N.; Blunt, J. W.; Fenwick, G. D.; Munro, M. H. G.; Berquist, P. R. 1987: Occurrence of variabilin in New Zealand sponges of the order Dictyoceratida. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 15 (3): 373−376.

Pritchard, K.; Battershill, C. N.; Ward, V.; Bergquist, P. R. 1984: Marine sponges: forty-six sponges of northern New Zealand. Leigh Laboratory Bulletin 14.

Ramdahl, T.; Kazlauskas, R.; Bergquist, P.; Liaaen-Jensen, S. 1981: Carotenoids from the marine sponge lanthella basta. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 9 (2-3): 211−213.

Ridley, C. P.; Bergquist, P. R.; Harper, M. K.; Faulkner, D. J.; Hooper, J. N.; Haygood, M. G. 2005: Speciation and biosynthetic variation in four dictyoceratid sponges and their cyanobacterial symbiont, Oscillatoria spongeliae. Chemistry and Biology 12 (3): 397−406.

Rodrigo, A. G.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bergquist, P. L. 1994: Inadequate support for an evolutionary link between the metazoa and the fungi. Systematic Biology 43 (4): 578−584.

Rodrigo, A. R.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bergquist, P. L.; Reeves, R. A. 1994. Are sponges animals? An investigation into the vagaries of phylogenetic inference. Pp. 47−54 in: Van Soest, R. W. M.; van Kempen, T. M. G.; Braekman, J. C. eds, Sponges in time and space. Biology, Chemistry, Palaeontology. Proceedings of the 4th International Porifera Conference. AA Balkema, Rotterdam, Brookfield.

Rodrigo, A. G.; Kelly-Borges, M.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bergquist, P. L. 1993: A randomization test of the null hypothesis that two cladograms are sample estimates of a parametric phylogenetic tree. New Zealand Journal of Botany 31: 257−268.

Rudman, W.B.; Bergquist, P.R. 2007: A review of feeding specificity in the sponge-feeding Chromodorididae (Nudibranchia: Mollusca). Molluscan Research 27 (2): 60−88.

Sewall, M. A.; Bergquist, P. R. 1990: Variability in the reproductive cycle Stichopus mollis (Echinodermata: Holothuroidea). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 17: 1−7.

Spalter, R. A.; Walsh, D.; Reeves, R. A.; Saul, D. J.; Gray, R. D.; Bergquist, P. L.; Mackenzie, L.; Bergquist, P. R. 1997: Sequence heterogeneity of the ribosomal RNA intergenic region Alexandrium species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 25 (3): 231−239.

Stocker, L. J.; Bergquist, P. R. 1986: Seasonal cycles, extrinsic factors, and the variable effects of turfing algae on the abundance of a colonial ascidian. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 102 (1): 1−21.

Stocker, L. J.; Bergquist, P. R. 1987: Importance of algal turf grazers, and spatial variability in the recruitment of a subtidal colonial invertebrate. Marine Ecology-Progress Series 39: 285−291.

Thompson, J. E.; Murphy, P. T.; Bergquist, P. R.; Evans, E. A. 1987: Environmentally induced variation in diterpene composition of the marine sponge Rhopaloeides odorabile. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 15: 595−606.

Tyrrell, J. V.; Bergquist; P. R.; Bergquist, P. L.; Scholin, C. A. 2001: Detection and enumeration of Heterosigma akashiwo and Fibrocapsa japonica (Raphidophyceae) using rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes. Phycologia 40 (5): 457−467.

Tyrrell, J. V.; Bergquist, P. R.; Gray, R. D.; MacKenzie, L.; Bergquist, P. L. 1996: Phylogeny of the raphidophytes Heterosigma carterae and Chattonella antiqua using 'V4' domain SSU rDNA sequences. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24 (3): 221−235.

Tyrrell, J. V.; Bergquist, P. R.; Saul, D. J.; MacKenzie, L.; Bergquist, P. L. 1997: Oligonucleotide probe technology as applied to the study of harmful algal blooms. New Zealand Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research 31 (4): 551−560.

Vincent Crist, B.; Li, X.; Bergquist, P. R.; Djerassi, C. 1983: Sterols of marine invertebrates. 44. Isolation, structure elucidation, partial synthesis, and determination of absolute configuration of pulchrasterol. The first example of double bioalkylation of the sterol side chain at position 26. Journal of Organic Chemistry 48 (24): 4472−4479.

Walsh, D.; Reeves, R. A.; Saul, D. J.; Gray; R. D.; MacKenzie, L.; Bergquist, P. R.; Bergquist, P. L. 1998: Heterogeneity of SSU and LSU rDNA sequences of Alexandrium species. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 26 (5): 495−509.

Wellington, K. D.; Cambie, R. C.; Rutledge, P. S.; Bergquist, P. R. 2000: Chemistry of sponges. 19. Novel bioactive metabolites from Hamigera tarangaensis. Journal of Natural Products 63 (1): 79−85.